Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Health is one of the greatest blessings which ensure a peaceful life. Diseases or illness deteriorates the health and lead to serious consequences if left untreated. The persistent raised blood pressure is regarded as hypertension. It is expressed in mmHg (millimeters of mercury) having a normal value below 120/80 mmHg.

Symptoms of Hypertension:

Hypertension is one of the serious ailment that is also known as a silent killer. The name silent killer is given to hypertension because of the fact that it does not reveal any signs and symptoms until the level becomes dangerously high. It damages other body organs as well such as the kidney.

However, a few people report the symptoms of it such as tinnitus, shortness of breath (SOB), lightheadedness, vertigo etcThe name silent killer is given to hypertension because of the fact that it does not reveal any signs and symptoms until the level becomes dangerously high. It affects other body organs as well. Keep monitoring the blood pressure and seek medical emergency if raises to a high level for long.

Types of Hypertension:

Primary hypertension and secondary hypertension are the common types. Almost 95% of hypertensive patient suffer from primary hypertension. It is also known as essential hypertension and does not have any underlying cause.

Secondary hypertension can be due to any disease or may be drug or medicine related such as the corticosteroid, NSAIDs etc. 5% of the hypertensive people are prone to have secondary hypertension

Risk Factors:
Most common risk factors leading to hypertension are given as

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol
  • Obesity
  • Sodium Intake
  • Poor life style
  • Stress
  • Race

Blood pressure increases as the age advance. Smokers and alcoholics are at higher risk of hypertension. Hence, it is better to quit smoking and alcohol. The higher the sodium intake would be, the more the blood pressure would result. Have a string control on sodium in your diet and avoid taking bicarbonate drinks as well. Likewise, obese people mostly seem to suffer from hypertension. Stress and poor lifestyle directly affect the health and lead to high blood pressure.

Hypertension Crisis:

Hypertension crisis is such as condition when the blood pressure of the individual raises above 180/110 mmHg. Having a glance of hypertension crisis reveals that it has 2 major types namely, Hypertension Emergency and Hypertension Urgency

Hypertensive Emergency is acute or progressive and is associated with the endorgan damage. Here, the key concern is to treat the organ damage. Medications are given intravenously to treat the emergency. While, in Hypertension Urgency, the scenario is different. There is no end organ damage and here, the goal is to normalize the blood pressure within 24 hours.

Compelling Indications:

The compelling indications of hypertension are diabetes, renal impairment, coronary artery disease (CAD) and Cushion’s syndrome. In Stage 1 of hypertension, the blood pressure range if 140-159 / 90-99 mmHg. When there is no compelling
indication in stage 1 then thiazide diuretics are given to treat hypertension. While in presence of compelling indication, a compelling indication is treated.

The range of blood pressure for stage II is more than 160/100 mmHg. Here combination therapy is provided to the patient, regardless of the presence or absence of compelling indication.

Treatment:

Treatment approaches for hypertension can be of pharmacological and non pharmacological approach. Sometimes, both approaches can be used simultaneously to obtain desirable outcomes. The first line non-pharmacological treatment includes the lifestyle modification. Second being the stress reduction.

It is recommended that hypertensive patients should gradually adopt walking, cycling exercise, swimming etc. Unhealthy eating habits and a sluggish lifestyle should be avoided and kick out stress as much as possible. Regular physical exercise would leave a massive positive outcome towards disease management. Pharmacological therapy involves treating the disease with medication. Single medication or combination of it can be used as per the doctor’s recommendation.

These medications are:
• Vasodilators
• Angiotension Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
• Diuretics
• Angiotension Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
• Calcium Channel Blockers
• Beta Blockers
• Alpha Blockers
• Peripheral Adrenergic Inhibitor

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